HCA340 FINAL EXAM/HCA340 FINAL EXAM
1. One of the results of the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in Louisiana has been an increase in the influx of Spanish-speaking workers. Incorporating cultural and linguistic competence to meet the health needs of this population would include
a. having health care professional staff from different Spanish-speaking countries at health care facilities.
b. ensuring health services are in varying locations.
c. ensuring that all signage is posted completely in Spanish.
d. having all health care workers speak Spanish.
2. A mechanism health care organizations need to incorporate into their strategic plan for culturally and linguistically appropriate services includes
a. goals, policies, accountability and oversight mechanisms addressing these services.
b. partnerships with community agencies.
c. mechanisms for client service reimbursement.
d. staff con? ict resolution policies.
3. Kwanzaa was created in the 1960s to raise awareness and pride for the African- American community. While its tenets can be applied to all people, this particular celebration was developed to celebrate a specific
a. social class.
d. cultural group.
4. Parish Nursing is an aspect of nursing that is becoming more utilized. One of the bases of parish nursing is the premise that
a. it is easier to provide health services to a de? ned religious community.
b. a faith community has an impact on the health of its members.
c. illness is prevented through parish nursing.
d. members of a religion follow de? ned health practices.
5. After the Vietnam War, many Vietnamese immigrated to the United States and settled in areas where they could maintain many of the cultural customs and traditions of Vietnam, including festivals, Saturday schools to educate the children in the Vietnamese language and planting communal gardens. This is an example of
a. heritage consistency.
d. religious preference.
6. A seminal event in the boomer generation that can still elicit comment today is the question
a. ”How did the Challenger tragedy affect you?”
b. ”Where were you when John F. Kennedy was shot?”
c. ”Do you remember Pearl Harbor?”
d. ”What were you doing on September 11, 2001?”
7. A complaint of the boomer generation about the following generations regards work ethic. The “nester” generation born between 1979 and 1984 is more likely to embrace an ethic
a. of employer loyalty.
b. seeking to fit their lifestyle.
c. seeking maximum financial gain.
d. loyal to one’s skills in the marketplace.
8. The best outcome for health care facilities incorporating cultural care into their practices is
a. increased numbers of clients seeking care at these facilities.
b. improved health outcomes for the clients at these facilities.
c. better health care provided by the facility’s staff.
d. increased reimbursement by insurance companies for provided health services.
9. An important consideration when making a home health visit to a client is to:
a. give a general idea of when the visit will be made.
b. bring a gift to the client’s home on the initial visit.
c. just show up at the client’s home.
d. inform the client the approximate time the visit will be made.
10. Certain cultures place emphasis on eating speci? c foods during pregnancy and after childbirth to ensure a healthy mother and infant. This cultural phenomena is an example of
a. time orientation.
b. environmental control.
c. biological variation.
d. social organization.
11. Touch is an important component of nursing, but using it without understanding the client’s cultural background can be a violation of their
a. social organization.
b. environmental control.
c. space and territoriality.
d. time orientation.
12. Before doing any teaching it is important the client understands what is being taught. The most effective method to determine if the client understands any health teaching is by
a. ask the client if they understand what was said in the teaching.
b. speaking slowly and carefully to the client.
c. having the client repeat back what was said in his/her own words.
d. interpreting the client’s facial gestures.
13. Native Americans have a higher susceptibility to diabetes than other population groups within the United States. This is considered a(n)
a. biological variation.
b. component of heritage consistency.
c. social organization pattern.
d. environmental control.
14. While the Census Bureau has placed race as a sociopolitical construct, placing oneself into a racial category can still present a challenge. Those who consider themselves “Creole” would be more likely to place themselves into the category labeled
c. Black or African American.
d. Hispanic or Latino.
15. While shifts in the population profile are occurring, what is an important consideration to address in health care?
a. More physicians need to be trained to deliver health care.
b. Cultural health needs of varying groups must be considered.
c. Health care providers need to be younger to care for an aging population.
d. Health care needs to be streamlined for consistent care delivery.6
16. With the percentage of the 65+ population greatest among White non-Hispanics in the 2000 Census, health planning needs would indicate
a. there is no need to increase manufacture of childhood immunizations.
b. cultural accommodations for other minority groups can be decreased.
c. planning needs for other segments of the population can be revised downwards.
d. this population will have greater demands on the health care system as they age.
17. Twelve percent of the population in 2000 was age 65 or over. Long-term implications for health for this group include
a. developing systems to provide health care only to those older citizens who remain healthy.
b. providing health care that is focused on gerontological needs.
c. providing health insurance for all age groups.
d. developing medications to prolong life at any cost.
18. A hurdle immigrants face coming to a new country is
a. rejecting their old customs in favor of new customs.
b. having their children learn the customs of the new country.
c. finding their own cultural group in the new country.
d. learning a new way of life that differs from their former way of life.
19. In 1970, the highest percentage of foreign-born legal permanent residents becoming citizens came from Europe. What is true today? The majority of foreign-born legal permanent residents are from
b. Mexico, China, and the Philippines.
d. South America.
20. Many people who come to the United States to live seek to get a “green card.” The green card
a. confers automatic U.S. citizenship.
b. legally restricts the holder from becoming a citizen.
c. defines the person as being in the country unlawfully.
d. allows the person legal permanent residency.
21. When seeking permanent U.S. citizenship, legal permanent residents take a naturalization exam that questions them on
a. knowing the Pledge of Allegiance.
b. being able to recite or sing the national anthem.
c. elements of the U.S. government.
d. the Congressional district they live in.
22. Among the very real concerns for all residents of the United States, citizens and legal permanent residents, is the rise in undocumented people entering the country. What impact is this having on health care?
a. Increased numbers of undocumented people are straining health care resources.
b. The rise in undocumented people is contributing to the rise in exotic and rare diseases in the country.
c. There is a concern that undocumented people will lead to bioterrorist attacks.
d. Health insurance is being given to all people in the country ensuring universal coverage.
23. One recognized deterrent to poverty is
a. the presence of two parents in a family structure.
b. not needing to have housing assistance.
c. not needing to utilize food stamps.
d. living in a household of a male income earner.
24. While income is not a restrictor for engaging in health-promoting behaviors, higher income improves them through
a. living in better housing.
b. membership in health clubs in suburban areas.
c. increasing opportunities through nutrition and access to facilities.
d. access to better jobs.
25. Many people and groups have provided definitions of health, but the most widely used definition is that from
c. Murray and Zenter.
d. WHO (World Health Organization
26. As people progress through a health profession education program, definitions of health become
a. easier to explain to others.
b. aligned with the client seeking care.
c. more abstract and technical.
d. well articulated and understandable.
27. In attempting to define health, what can occur?
a. Listing categories of health will enable understanding of health.
b. Ambiguity is resolved when health definitions are discussed.
c. Terms and meanings can be challenged by others.
d. A full acceptance can be achieved by all parties.
28. Health status and determinants are used to
a. account for health care expenditures.
b. enforce legislation pertaining to health.
c. determine federal dietary guidelines.
d. measure the health of a nation.
29. Healthy People 2010 represents
a. health policies providing monetary incentives to states who reach the benchmark goals by 2010.
b. a plan to improve the health of everyone in the United States in the ? rst decade of this century.
c. mandated legislation that will result in a healthier population by 2010.
d. a monitoring system evaluating the health of all citizens.
30. As with the many variant definitions of health, illness also has many meanings. Illness and the sick role assigned to it are legitimized by
a. the insurance company that pays for the illness treatment.
b. the person having the illness.
c. the health care profession that diagnoses the illness.
d. society’s view of the illness.
31. Among the sick role components is the
a. mandate of appearing ill and suffering from the illness.
b. necessity of taking medications and staying in bed.
c. exemption from performance of certain normal social obligations.
d. refusal to look to other sources of health care treatments beyond those prescribed.
32. During the stage of patient status, it is expected that
a. symptoms are being experienced, leading to a diagnosis.
b. the patient do all they can do to recover from their illness.
c. the illness is now socially recognized and identified.
d. the person shifts into the role as it is determined by society.
33. Assuming the sick role according to Suchman means the person
a. is aware that something is wrong and responds emotionally.
b. seeks scientific confirrmation that something is wrong.
c. seeks help and shares the problem with family and friends.
d. goes under the control of a physician who plans a treatment of care.
34. A person who has cancer may have followed this illness trajectory:
a. presenting symptoms, followed by treatment and recovery.
b. acute illness, unstable status, deterioration, and recovery.
c. diagnosis, treatment, unstable status, death.
d. presenting symptoms, followed by diagnosis and treatment.
35. When Suchman divides the illness experience into its various stages, the medical care contact stage implies the person is
a. cognitively and physically aware that something is wrong.
b. under medical control and following a prescribed treatment protocol.
c. seeking scientific c rather than lay diagnosis in order to interpret what it all means.
d. seeking help and information from family and friends. 10
36. While HEALTH is considered a balance of the person, ILLNESS would be considered
a. the imbalance of one’s being in and outside the world.
b. actual symptomatology physically manifested.
c. part of the human condition that all must experience.
d. the absence of elements that contribute to health.
37. While complementary alternative medical (CAM) treatments are used by people of all backgrounds, recent research indicates CAM use is greater by
b. those who have never been hospitalized.
c. people with rudimentary education.
38. Alternative medical traditions are considered
a. an essential component of a cultural heritage medical tradition.
b. for use in concert with other aspects of health care.
c. out of the realm of a person’s cultural heritage medical tradition.
d. traditional methods of health care.
39. The evil eye is defined differently by different populations. Evil is thought to be cast in the Philippines through the
a. mouth or eye.
b. eye or touch.
40. The saying, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away, an onion a day keeps everyone away,” is thought to protect HEALTH by
a. recognizing the special antibiotic properties contained within onions.
b. advertising that onions have special healing abilities.
c. protecting the person from coming in contact with those who might be ill.
d. affirming the belief in the power of onions to prevent disease.
41. Religion has an important role in HEALTH, and ILLNESS can be considered
a. violating dietary practices.
b. failure to wear special amulets to ward it off.
c. a necessary part of religious culture.
d. punishment for breaking a religious code.
42. Eucalyptus is a folk herbal remedy that has applications today. It is used for
a. nasal congestion and sore throat.
b. infant colic.
c. toothache pain.
43. Allopathic medicine terms alternative treatments as complementary or alternative. An alternative therapy for rehabilitation might include ________ as treatment.
44. The difference between complementary and alternative medicine is that complementary medicine
a. can be used together with allopathic medicine.
b. is never used with allopathic medicine.
c. lessens a patient’s discomfort with allopathic treatments.
d. replaces allopathic medicine as a primary form of treatment.
45. A reason why people seek alternative care treatments is
a. allopathic treatments may cause adverse effects that a person can’t tolerate.
b. training for alternative care practitioners is closely regulated and licensed.
c. insurance reimburses alternative care treatments at the same rate or better than allopathic treatments.
d. it has a better empirical basis than do allopathic treatments.
46. Many people of Catholic faith pray to ________ for the grace of a happy death.
a. St. Teresa of Avila
b. St. John of God
c. St. Roch
d. St. Joseph
47. While shrines that attract pilgrims can be religious or secular in nature, an essential component to all of them is the
a. feeling of peace and serenity that is conducive to healing.
b. location of the shrine.
c. presence of water so pilgrims can take samples home.
d. numbers of people who are attracted to that site.
48. Lourdes, France, is the site of a revered Roman Catholic shrine. Many people with illnesses visit the shrine with the hope of
a. becoming more prosperous.
b. gaining a better job.
c. receiving a cure through a miracle.
d. being able to live a long life.
49. Historically, early forms of HEALING for illness were equated with
a. performing set rituals to prevent illness.
b. finding the person causing the illness.
c. sacrificial offerings.
d. removing the evil causing the illness.
50. Among alternative treatment modalities utilized during an illness may be the
a. consultation of a healer outside the medical establishment.
b. strict adherence to the prescribed medical regimen.
c. willingness to seek a second medical opinion.
d. refusal to allow any medical treatment to be performed.
51. A potential explanation for healers being used in addition to or instead of traditional medical personnel is their
a. unique language that is characteristic of their calling.
b. exclusive dialogue with the person who is ill.
c. formal relationship with the client.
d. willingness to be available at any time.
52. An illness of the spirit is treated through repentance and is considered
a. physical healing.
b. spiritual healing.
c. inner healing.
53. The six-week postpartum check that women have after having a baby closely matches the crucial ________ day practice of ancient times.
54. Baptism dates for children have significance within various religions. Water is the common element in baptism as water signifies
a. protecting the child from illness.
b. cleansing the child either from evil or other maladies.
c. the relation of the child to God.
d. dedication of the child to a family group.
55. Wearing white clothes in the Buddhist tradition indicates
a. mourning the death of a relative.
b. recognition of a religious holiday.
c. joy for the birth of an infant.
d. celebration for a marriage.
56. The decline in the use of patent medicine utilization in the United States began with
a. the passage of the Food and Drug Act.
b. increased popularity of over-the-counter medicines.
c. the rise in alternative health care practitioners.
d. Medicare reimbursement for prescription medications.
57. An important health protection practice among Black American Baptists is
a. drinking blackstrap molasses.
b. eating fresh lemons.
c. wearing camphor around the neck in the winter.
d. taking a daily shot of whiskey.
58. Chicken soup is considered a universal HEALTH restoration intervention in which tradition?
b. Pacific Islander
c. Eastern European Jewish
59. As a HEALTH maintenance practice, the use of cod liver oil is advocated by those of the
a. German Catholic tradition.
b. Italian Catholic tradition.
c. Iranian (U.S.) Islamic tradition.
d. English Episcopal tradition.
60. A HEALTH protection practice among Irish-American Catholics is drinking
a. senna tea.
c. hot peppermint tea.
d. wine daily.
61. Fr. John’s medicine is suggested as a HEALTH protection practice from November to May for
a. English American Episcopalians.
b. Canadian Catholics.
c. Native American Baptists.
d. Italian American Catholics.
62. Among the HEALTH restoration practices for menstrual cramps for Irish American Catholics is
a. applying Vicks on the abdomen.
b. drinking cod liver oil in orange juice.
c. applying warm oil to the stomach.
d. drinking hot milk sprinkled with ginger.
63. Activities for HEALTH maintenance for Swedish-American Protestants include
a. walking distances on a regular basis.
b. dressing appropriately for the weather.
c. going to a physician twice a year whether needed or not.
d. starting each day with prayer.
64. While dressing properly for season and weather is an important HEALTH protection practice for Iranian-American Moslems, it is also important to
a. keep onions under the bed to keep nasal passages clear.
b. eat sorghum molasses.
c. keep feet from getting wet in the rain.
d. prevent evil spirits by not looking at a mirror at night.
65. A constant for any culture is the
a. ability for it to change quickly to adjust to new challenges.
b. requirement that all members of the culture act the same.
c. socialization into its traditions, language and practices.
d. necessity for its members to be homogenous in all their decisions.
66. Socialization into the health care culture includes an assumption that
a. effective treatment can only be done by educated and licensed professionals.
b. the more technological the intervention, the greater bene? t it yields.
c. interventions for health events must follow a prescribed protocol.
d. alternative complementary treatments have validity.
67. Contemporary per capita U.S. health care expenditures are expected to
a. increase as part of the overall gross domestic product.
b. decrease as health care becomes available for all citizens.
c. match those of other Western countries.
d. have the United States achieve the highest health status in the world.
68. Specified government efforts for health insurance have resulted in
a. decreasing the amount that Medicare covers for prescription medications.
b. decreasing the percentage of uninsured children under age 18.
c. increasing coverage for prenatal and well-baby care.
d. increasing the percentage of uninsured children under age 18.
69. Technology and scientific advances in health care have resulted in more conditions being treated than in previous decades. The most expensive costs for care are for which conditions?
a. Cardiac disease
b. Conditions resulting in transplantation
c. Diabetes care
d. Pulmonary disease
70. In the early part of the twentieth century, health care efforts focused on controlling infectious diseases and improving
a. maternal and child health.
b. the requirements of the medical profession.
c. chronic diseases.
d. health care costs.
71. The United State relies heavily on guest worker/migrant labor for its agriculture industry. Health care can be offered for this population but faces a potential barrier of
72. What differentiates CULTURALCARE from modern medical care in philosophy is that
a. sufficient money, technology and science are used to cure or remedy.
b. premature death must be avoided.
c. holistic care is predicated on cultural health traditions and needs.
d. disease and injury are avoided through health promotion and maintenance.
73. HEALTH for American Indians has a basis in the
a. curing of those conditions that affect the spirit.
b. respecting of others’ beliefs in healing traditions.
c. harmony between nature and the ability to survive.
d. optimism that life creates positive forces.
74. Evil spirits are associated with illness by the
75. In determining the cause for illness, medicine men and women look for the
a. dietary practices of the person being seen.
b. past medical history as a determinant.
c. spiritual cause of the problem of the person seen.
d. physical symptoms displayed.
76. Use of sand paintings as diagnosis in the Navajo tradition helps to
a. provide an atmosphere of calming for the medicine man.
b. determine cause and treatment of the illness.
c. ensure that appropriate payment is made by the family.
d. create symbolic representations of the client and family.
77. A sequela related to alcohol abuse in American Indians is the rise in
a. malnourishment among children.
b. breast cancer rates.
c. domestic violence against women.
d. unintentional injuries.
78. The provision of health services through the Indian Health Service means
a. having one master health guideline blueprint for consistency of care.
b. partnering and assisting tribes in planning the best delivery of care.
c. allotting health resources based on population numbers.
d. following prescribed federal guidelines and procedures.
79. Comparing household income levels of $150,000 or more within the Asian subpopulations, the population that has the higher income level is
80. The initial impetus for Asian immigration to the United States, specifically with the Chinese population, resulted from the
a. favorable immigration status for the Chinese.
b. high unemployment rates in China.
c. need for cheap labor building railroads in the nineteenth century.
d. demand for menial service jobs.
81. A second-class physician in Chinese medicine:
a. pays the patient’s family if the patient dies.
b. has to wait for patients to become ill before treating them.
c. consults Taoist writings for diagnosis and prescription.
d. receives payment only if the patient is cured.
82. The health and disease beliefs in Ayurveda teach that
a. humans are distinct beings within the universe.
b. disease arises when a person is out of harmony with the universe.
c. at birth, people are not in balance and their lives are spent getting into balance with the universe.
d. living and nonliving things have minor connections with one another.
83. Feeling the pulse is important for a Chinese physician because it
a. can help refine a diagnosis.
b. is only felt on the wrist.
c. indicates a specific treatment.
d. is considered the storehouse of the blood.
84. In acupuncture, needles are inserted at predetermined points called meridians because
a. puncturing the meridians helps to restore yin and yang balance.
b. the best anesthetic response is done through meridian puncture.
c. meridians represent specific yin and yang points.
d. only specific needles can puncture the meridians.
85. While Blacks are represented in every socio-economic group, the percentage of those living in poverty in 2005 was approximately
a. thirty percent.
b. twenty percent.
c. fifty percent.
d. twenty-five percent.
86. Speaking a language other than English at home is highest among immigrants from
87. A diabetic Muslim may refuse insulin
a. because it implies the person has not led a holy life.
b. because any injectable medication is forbidden.
c. during Ramadan.
d. if it has a pork base.
88. The leading authority figure within the Black familial structure is the
a. oldest adult child.
89. When a Black person is being examined, skin pallor can be recognized by
b. checking the sclera.
c. the absence of underlying red tones.
d. slow blood return.
90. Scars that form at a wound site growing beyond the normal boundaries of the wound are
d. a pigmentary disorder.
91. Educational comparisons of high school graduation and college attendance between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites indicate
a. Hispanics have a lower rate of graduation and attendance than their
b. similar percentages of attendance between both groups.
c. more Hispanics attend college than their non-Hispanic counterparts.
d. a higher proportion of non-Hispanic whites fail to complete high school.
92. The largest Hispanic group in the United States comes from Mexico. Which is a true statement reflecting this population?
a. Employment levels are above the national average.
b. Employment in professional areas is stagnant.
c. Migrant farm work is the predominant employment.
d. Most live in urban areas.
93. Visiting a curandero(a) implies a person is seeking
a. holistic care encompassing social, physical, and psychological purposes.
b. care not offered by the medical establishment.
c. care for spiritual distress.
d. specialized herbal preparations not used by the medical establishment.
94. Teas used to treat mental illnesses in the Hispanic population are herbs common in the United States. Yerba buena is an herb used to treat nervousness. Its English name is
c. orange leaves.
95. The percentage of live births to women receiving third-trimester or no prenatal care is higher for Hispanics than the general population. This would imply that
a. more prenatal services are needed for the general population.
b. some prenatal care is better than no prenatal care.
c. Hispanics possibly have better self-care prenatal practices than the general population.
d. live birth rates would be comparable if all women received appropriate prenatal care.
96. In examining the median age of population groups, the oldest group is
a. African Americans.
d. Native Americans.
97. While German Americans believe in the germ theory of infection, another potential cause of ILLNESS can be
a. stress-related occurrences.
b. envy by others toward that person.
c. a voodoo curse.
d. unholy actions done in life.
98. Treating a cough in the German tradition may include
a. eating chicken soup.
b. putting wet warm compresses on the chest.
c. drinking lemon juice and whiskey.
d. rubbing goose grease on the chest.
99. To treat a cough, a traditional Polish remedy is
a. taking garlic oil.
b. a mustard plaster on the chest.
c. drinking hot lemonade with whiskey.
d. goose grease rubbed on the throat.
100. When compared to all races, the White population has a higher
a. percentage of low birth-weight infants.
b. percentage of women receiving prenatal care.
c. infant mortality rate.
d. crude birth rate.