Homework Questions

Please respond to the Forum questions listed below. You are expected to give complete answers referring to what you have read in the “Lessons”(reading & resources). Reference to, or the use of critical thinking, analysis, what you have learned in previous courses, the media, and in your professional lives is also expected. Define the subject; make references to what you have read, what you have learned elsewhere, and then form a response.

Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 350 words. Please respond to a least 2 other students. Response should be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions. When addressing the topic questions, you are to state the question followed by your response. Do this for each question posed.

1) Describe the following and discuss how they enhance port maritime operations?

a) The SMART Port Security Legislation.
b) The SAFE Port Act.
c) The Small Vessel Security Strategy.

d) The Maritime Transportation Security Act.

Articles for weekly assignment:

Bush, G. W. (2002). Statement on signing the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, 38, 2095-2096.

Chairman Rockefeller remarks on SAFE port act reauthorization: Securing our nation’s critical infrastructure. (2010). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.

Committee on Homeland Security. (2012, March 27). House Homeland Security Border and Maritime Security Subcommittee Passes SMART Port Security Legislation.

Department of Homeland Security. (2008, April). Small Vessel Security Strategy.

House passes SMART port security act. (2012). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.

LoBiondo statement from hearing “tenth anniversary of the Maritime Transportation Security Act: Are we safer?”. (2012). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.

Nolan, C. (2013). The rubik’s cube of cargo security. The Brief, 42(3), 58-64.

President’s statement on H.R. 4954, the “security and accountability for every port act of 2006”. (2006). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.

U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Customs and Border Protection announce DHS small vessel security strategy implementation plan. (2011). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.

Weiss, J., & Davis, M. (2005). Maritime Transportation Security Act. Law & Order, 53(5), 64-69.

Written testimony of PLCY, USCG, CBP, TSA, FEMA for a senate committee on homeland security and governmental affairs hearing titled “evaluating port security: Progress made and challenges ahead”. (2014). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc.

Supplemental Reading:

Public Law 109–347. (2006, October 13). The SAFE Port Act, 2006.

Note this requirement – respond to at least two of your classmate’s posts.

Student #1 Robert

Hello Class,

This week we are discussing the SMART Port Security Legislation, the SAFE Port Act, the Small Vessel Security Strategy, and the Maritime Transportation Security Act. In addition we are discussing how they enhanced port maritime operations.

The SMART Port Security act was passed into action on June 6, 2012 by the Homeland Security Committee. The purpose of this act was to enhance maritime security programs under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The act also includes other agencies such as the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), U.S Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and other Federal, State and local law enforcement agencies. The purpose of the act is to enhance risk-based security measures overseas before the threat reaches the United States and leveraging the maritime security work of our trusted allies. In addition, the SMART Port Security Act encourages (DHS) assets to better coordinate more effectively to secure the maritime environment and to recognize the importance of partnerships with private industry and international partners. Finally the Smart Port Security Act included some key components such as allowing the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) to recognize other governments’ or organizations’ port security threat assessments, required (DHS) to update the Maritime Operations Coordination Plan to enhance interagency cooperation, saving taxpayers money by commissioning a report to study possible cost savings by having the (USCG) and (CBP) share facilities, and to institute changes to the Transportation Worker Identification Credentials (TWIC) program to prompt DHS to install readers, improve efficiency for enrollees, and prevent unauthorized use (Homeland security committee passes SMART port security act, 2012).

The Security and Accountability for Every Port Act (SAFE Port Act) of 2006 required all cargo designated as high-risk at foreign ports to be scanned for radiation and x-rayed. The (SAFE Port Act) had additional initiatives such as unannounced inspections of maritime facilities, port security grants to allocate funds for port infrastructure, random searches of containers, and the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office. The agencies involved in the (SAFE Port Act) included the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), and U.S Customs and Border Protection (CBP) (Nolan, 2013).

After the small vessel terrorist attacks on the USS Cole in 2000 and the MA/ Limburg in 2002 the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) officials implemented a step in countering any possible threat posed by terrorists utilizing a small vessel as a method of delivering harm to American assets with the Small Vessel Security Strategy (SVSS) (Niece, 2010). The purpose of the (SVSS) is to close security gaps and reduce risks associated with the potential exploitation of small maritime vessels and a means to combat terrorism along the waterways of the United States since an estimated eighty five percent of the United States critical infrastructure includes ports and maritime structures that are owned and operated by the private sector. Another purpose of the (SVSS) is to ensure that the maritime domain remains a secure and safe environment where small vessel operators can safely earn a living, travel, and enjoy recreational activities without unduly burdensome government regulations. The (SVSS) identifies four serious concerns associated with small vessels such as a domestic use of waterborne improvised explosive devices, conveyance for smuggling weapons, conveyance for smuggling terrorists, and waterborne platform for conducting a stand-off attack. Several specific objectives identified in the (SVSS) to help achieve this goal include better identification of small vessels operating in U.S. waters, an expanded radiological/nuclear detection capabilities, and improved situational awareness and information sharing, and a cultivate coordination, cooperation and communications between federal, state, local and tribal partners in addition to the private sector and international partners to leverage capabilities and improve security operations within the maritime environment (DHS unveils small vessel security strategy,2008).

The Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 focused on regulating security incidents that may be a high risk of a terrorist attack. The (MTSA) had an effect on the three hundred and sixty ports and helped regain the public’s trust by implementing new las and within the United States by implementing new laws and strategies to counterterrorism (Christopher, 2014).


Homeland security committee passes SMART port security act. (2012). (). Washington: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc. Retrieved from ProQuest Central Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/docview/1019034529?accountid=8289

Nolan, C. (2013). The rubik’s cube of cargo security. The Brief, 42(3), 58-64. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/1366357221?accountid=8289

Niece, J. F. (2010). Exploring the influence of small vessel security strategy on U.S. coast guard multi-mission boat stations (Order No. 3400382). Available from ProQuest Central; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (89185148). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/docview/89185148?accountid=8289

Christopher, K. (2015). Port Security Management, 2nd Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, (ISBN # 13: 978-1-4200- 6893-1) e-book.

DHS: DHS unveils small vessel security strategy. (2008). (). Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc. Retrieved from ProQuest Central; SciTech Premium Collection Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/docv…

Student# 2 Erek

Maritime security has been a forefront of American interests since the inception of the United States. Piracy was the major threat during 1700 to 1800s. Piracy was still in existence during the 2000s but saw an increase in the region of the horn of Africa. The increase compiled that with the very real threat of terrorism prompted the U.S. Government to take action. Congress did, in fact, pass acts and/or legislation specific to our maritime industry.

a) The Smart Port Security legislation: “H.R. 4251 would require the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to carry out two pilot programs relating to border and port security and would direct DHS and the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to prepare several reports on improving port security.” (HR4251) What the legislation does is prevent threats to U.S. Ports and waterways thru improved and enhanced risk-based security measures. It also called for the cooperation between the Coast Guard and Custom and Border Protection, by sharing information and joint exercises and operations. It also would direct, “DHS to make changes to procedures for issuing Transportation Worker Identification Credentials (TWICs) to individuals who require unescorted access to secure areas of ports and certain other facilities.” (HR421)

b) SAFE Port Act ( Security and Accountability For Every Port Act ) of 2006 states, ” Amends the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (MTSA) to require area maritime transportation security plans to include a salvage response plan to identify equipment capable of restoring operational trade capacity and to ensure that waterways are cleared as quickly as possible after a maritime transportation security incident (defined as a security incident resulting in significant loss of life, environmental damage, transportation system disruption, or economic disruption in a particular area).” (HR 4954) Basically what it did was to codify into law a number of programs to improve U.S. port security. These programs were: a) Creation of the Transportation Worker Identification Credential b) Foreign port assessments c)Port Security Grant Program d) Container Security Initiative and a provision to add additional requirements for maritime facilities.

c) The Small Vessel Security Strategy addresses the threat from small watercraft that are able to navigate coastal water, river, and waterways. This strategy is to prevent criminals, criminal organizations and terrorists to either transport weapons, explosives or terrorists into U.S. territory. The main goals of the plan are: a) enhance maritime security and safety based on a coherent framework with a layered, innovative approach b) develop and leverage a strong partnership with the small vessel community and public and private sectors in order to enhance maritime domain awareness c) leverage technology to enhance the ability to detect, infer intent, and when necessary, interdict small vessels that pose a maritime security threat. d) enhance cooperation among international, federal, state, local, and tribal partners and the private sector (e.g., marinas, shipyards, small vessel, Dand facility operators), and, in coordination with the Department of State and other relevant federal departments and agencies, international partners (DHS)

D) The Maritime Transportation Act basically states that measures shall be taken to prevent attacks by terrorists on the nation’s ports and waterways. Such measures include a) Threat and Security Assessments b) Security Plans and Advisory Committees. Also, it mandated increased maritime security awareness, such that it is a requirement for attaining a certain Coast Guard Licence.



H.R. 4251 SMART Port Security Act retrieved from https://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/112th-cong…

Small Vessel Security Strategy retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/publication/small-vessel-secur…

Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006 retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/109/plaws/publ347/PLAW-10…

Maritime Security Transportation Act of 2002 retrieved from https://www.aapa-ports.org/files/PDFs/mtsa_press_k…

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