follow the instructions chapter 9

PSYC 312

Chapter 9

this is outline


Stress management

Coping Strategies

Problem-focused Coping Strategies.

Emotion-focused Coping Strategies.

Coping Styles

Approach Style of Coping.

Avoidance Style of Coping.

Factors that Influence Coping Effectiveness

Sex of athlete.

Match between stressor and coping strategy.

Utilizing an approach coping strategy.

Coping Strategies Used by Elite Athletes

Elite athletes tend to use an approach style of coping, with the majority of the strategies being problem or action focused.

The vast majority of coping strategies may be categorized under the heading of psychological training, physical training, strategizing, and somatic relaxation.

Self-talk as an intervention


The When and Where of Self-Talk

The What of Self-talk (Content)

The structure of self-talk describes the use of cue words, phrases, and sentences.

The use of task instruction is usually specific as opposed to general in nature.

Categories of self-talk are of three types.

Categories of Self-talk

Task specific statements relating to technique.

Encouragement and effort.

Mood words (“hard” “blast” “go”)

To be effective, self-talk must be:

Brief and phonetically simple.

Logically associated with the skill.

Compatible with the sequential timing of the task to be performed.

The Why of Self-talk

The why of self-talk describes its role and function.

The two main functions or components are:

– Cognitive component

– Motivational component

Cognitive Component of Self-talk

Assist in skill development.

Skill execution.

Improve performance.

Specific Uses (Why) of Self-talk

Building and developing self-efficacy

Skill acquisition

Creating and changing mood

Controlling effort

Focusing attention or concentration

Relaxation strategies used in sport

Deep Breathing

Important component of all relaxation techniques.

Types of Breathing.

– Chest breathing

– Abdominal breathing

Progressive Relaxation

Edmund Jacobson.

Tense a muscle before relaxing it.

Systematic tensing and relaxing of all muscles, beginning with upper limbs.

After training, the relaxation response can be elicited in a matter of minutes.

–effect on relaxation response? athletic performance?

Autogenic Training


Self statements to achieve relaxation:

1. Heaviness in arms and legs.

2. Warmth in arms and legs.

3. Warmth in chest and reduced heart rate.

4. Calm and relaxed breathing.

5. Warmth in the solar plexus area.

6. Sensation of coolness on forehead.

COMPONENT 2: imagery

COMPONENT 3: specific themes

—-effect on relaxation response? athletic performance?


Athlete uncritically focuses attention on a single thought, sound or object.

Use of a mental device or “mantra.”


Biofeedback Training

Biofeedback training uses instruments to help people control responses of the autonomic nervous system.


Arousal Energizing Strategies for Sport

Categories of Energizing Strategies

Team Energizing Strategies.

Individual Self-Energizing Strategies.

Team Energizing Strategies

Team Goal Setting

Pep Talks

Bulletin Boards

Publicity and News Coverage

Fan Support

Coach, Athlete, and Parent Interaction

Precompetitive Workout

Immediate/Individual Self-Energizing Strategies

Individual Goal Setting


Attentional Focus




this is the important

Chapter 9 objectives

• Explain coping and stress management

• List, describe and apply coping strategies and coping styles

• Explain the characteristics, components, and types of self-talk

• Describe progressive relaxation, autogenic training, meditation, and biofeedback training, and report their levels of effectiveness in inducing the relaxation response and in enhancing sport performance

• List and define energizing strategies used by individuals and teams

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